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Introducing Hybrid

Hybrid technology since 1969

Hybrid technology since 1969: Way back in 1969, Toyota started developing Hybrid technology. We went into production in 1997 and have been leading the way ever since.

Key milestones to note

In our Hybrid history include the launch of the Toyota century in 1975, one of the first gas turbine Hybrids, and more recently the Auris Touring Sports in 2013, the World’s first compact estate Hybrid.

6 Million Toyota Hybrids on the road

This year, there are 6 million of our Hybrids on the road – that’s 80% of all the Hybrids sold worldwide. And as the biggest producer of this innovative technology, we don’t intend to stop there. By 2020, 50% of all Toyotas will be Hybrid.

Here and now... 1975: Toyota Century, first petrol turbine Hybrid 2013: Auris Touring Sports, first compact estate Hybrid
Hybrid Synergy Drive

Hybrid Synergy Drive is a full Hybrid - no half measures. It is the most dynamic and efficient Hybrid offering excellent driving performance and outstanding efficiency by combining two power sources - a 1.8 litre petrol engine and 2 electric motors. As a full Hybrid it is capable of operating in petrol or electric modes alone, as well as a combination of both.

Power Split Device (PSD) and Electronically Controlled CVT (E-CVT)

The core of an HSD powertrain is its Power Split Device. For the driver, this system provides a transmission that feels mostly like a CVT. The engine remains always at the most fuel-efficient rpm for the required power, like in a real CVT. That is also where the comparison ends. In HSD, the Power Split Device masters the flow of power from the engine and electric motor to the wheels and generator. Its real strength is its ability to direct power flows in many directions:

  • Electric motor -> wheels (EV) 
  • Electric motor + Atkinson engine -> wheels (Full acceleration) 
  • Atkinson engine -> wheels & generator (Drive and battery charge) 
  • Electric motor + Atkinson engine -> wheels & generator (most normal driving conditions) 
  • Electric motor -> wheels 
  • Generator -> starting the Atkinson engine 
  • Wheels -> electric motor (braking, coasting, battery recharge) 
  • Wheels -> electric motor + Atkinson engine (B-mode)

This will induce engine braking, to be used on long down hills. Through this intelligent power flow management it is effectively the Power Split Device that makes the series: series/parallel full hybrid HSD possible.

HSD Components Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

The ECU could be said to be the Hybrid system’s brain. It constantly monitors and controls the petrol engine, generator, electric motors and battery. It receives braking data from the car’s control network and reads driver intentions from the accelerator and gear shift position.

1 - Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
  • This battery provides the world’s top input/output to weight ratio.
  • It is lightweight and has a long life. The system maintains the battery charge at a constant level, avoiding excessive battery draining/ recharging. 
  • It does not require recharging from an outside power source.
  • Proven track record and reliable.
2 - Petrol Engine
  • An energy-efficient, 1.8 litre petrol unit that works on the Atkinson cycle rather than the Otto cycle of almost every other petrol engine in present day use.
  • Maximum power output: 73 kW (99 hp) @ 5,200 rpm.
  • Maximum torque: 142 Nm @ 4,000 rpm.
3 - Electric Motor (Parallel function)
  • This synchronous AC motor propels the car alone and in combination with the petrol engine when required.
  • Maximum output: 60 kW (80 hp) @ 1200 - 1540 rpm.
  • Maximum torque: 207 Nm @ 0 - 1200 rpm.
4 - Starter/Generator (Series function)
  • At its most fuel efficient operating conditions, the Atkinson engine may be producing more energy than required. This energy can be stored by the generator in the battery for later use. 
  • Acts as a starter motor and as a generator to recharge the battery.
  • Its high speed axial rotation has made it possible to produce substantial electrical power while the car is running in the mid-speed range.
5 - Regenerative Braking System

Re-uses the kinetic energy to generate electricity rather than dispersing it as heat as in a conventional braking system.For instance, in stop-start city traffic the system uses regenerative braking with the wheels effectively driving the electric motor in generator mode.

6 - Power Control Unit
  • The inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to AC to turn the electric motor. Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motor and the generator into DC to recharge the battery.
  • The voltage-boosting converter increases the normal 201 Volt DC supply voltage to a maximum of 650 Volt to feed the electric motors and the generator as required. 
  • The DC/DC converter steps down the high voltage from the HSD battery to the normal 12 volts used by ancillary systems and electronic devices.
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